Berta (oliangi) karstic source
Location: Tsalka municipality, Tsalka cave; 1600 m. above sea level.
Access road: from motor way Tsalka-Ninotsminda there is a fork near the village of Aiazma wherefrom a rocky road runs in the direction of the village of Berti, passes the village of Nar-devani, then the village of Kushch, distance till the karst source 6 km; distance from Tbilisi 108 km, from Tsalka 28 km.
Such kind of karstic sources are special treats in southern Georgia mountain areas, namely, in Tsalka, Javakheti, Gomareti, Dmanisi and other plateaus.
In the Tsalka cavity, in the village of Berta, on the height of 1600 m above sea level, arises one of the largest quantity karstic sources. This wonder of nature hosts a lot of guests.
Canyon of Dashbashi
Location: Tsalka municipality, Tsalka and Trialeti settlement territory, surroundings of the village of Dashbashi, 1110-1448 m above sea level
Access road: the nearest big settlement ling near the natural monument is the townie of Tsalka; from Tsalka till the village of Dashbashi is 3,8 km, from Dashbashi to the canyon – 0,5 km; distance from Tbilisi – 90 km.
That is the name of village in Tsalka municipality which used to be the seat of Sabaratiano rulers and military commanders. There are two churches in Dashbashi.
Dashbashi canyon is built in volcanic sediments. To the north-west from Dashbashi canyon, in 3 km, at 1506 m above sea level, is lying water reservoir on river Ktsia in Tsalka the biggest in Georgia.
Canyon of Samshvilde
Location: municipality of Tetri Tskaro, near the village of Samshvilde
Access road: the nearest settlement is the village of Samshvilde of Tetri Tskaro municipality from which distance to tetra Tskaro is 6 km, distance from Tbilisi 72 km.
Canyon of Samshvildi starts from the rock of Samshvildi cape and engulfs 5-6 km Samshvildi canyon and 3-4 km long canyon of river Chivchavi.
Not far from here is situated VIII c. AD masterpiece of Georgian architecture, central-dome Episcopal Cathedral – Samshvilde Sioni.
Location: watershed of rivers Tedzami and Algeti, 2000 m above sea level
Access road: from the territory of Tsalka municipality runs a motor way to Kldekari; near the village of Imeri there is a fork on Kumisi-Tsalka-Ninotsminda motor road, and from that point a rocky road leads to Kldekari having crossed the villages of Tsalka municipality. From the village of Imeri a distance is 25 km; distance from Tbilisi 105 km, from Tsalka 35 km.
A passageway is cut at the foot of the rock, `kldis kari` in Georgian (gate to the rock). The name of the place comes from here. Territory of Kldekari is part of the of Algeti National Park. In 2007 it was awarded the status of a National Park. On the territory of Algeti National Park flows river Algeti. General area of Algeti National Park is 6822 ha, and 6044 ha is covered by forest.
Near the rocks of Kldekari, on the elevation of 1900 m above sea level, is the source of 108-km-long river Algeti.
`Titans` pavement of Bedeni
Location: Tetri Tskaro municipality, plateau of Bedeni massif, between the source of rivers Kldesistskali and Chivchavi, 1600-1700 m above sea level, watershed of rivers Algeti and Ktsia. The highest peak is mount Bedeni (1875 m.)
Access road: it is possible to reach a monument from Tetri Tskaro in two ways: by passing Didi and Patara Kldeisi or via the village of Ivanovka; in the first case a car can travel up to Didi Kleisi, while in the second – nearly up to the end. Distance from Tbilisi 90 km, from Tetri Tskaro – 40 km.
`Titans` pavement is a figurative expression of volcanic lava-lake surfaces, are divided in polygons. These polygons are heads of pillar-looking lava-like blocks.
Plateau of Bedeni in the region of Kvemo Kartli. Diameter of polygons attains it here sometimes 2-3 meters. Later on burials of Bedeni plateau were singled out in separate group and called `Bedeni Culture`.
On the southern perhiphery of Bedni plateau, near the site of Nadarbazevi, on 1419 m above sea level, there is a Turtle (Nadarbazevi) lake. In 10 km from the downtown, is located a monument of Georgian architecture – Nadarbazevi castle constructed back in IX-X centuries.
Location: Teri Tskaro municipality, environsof the village of Patara Kldeisi, 1400 m above sea level
Access road: distance from the road Tetri Tskaro-Khrami HPP to Khorkhebi is 7 km. a car can ride up to the approaches of the village Patara Kldeisi; distance from Tbilisi 80 km; from Tetri Tskaro 32 km.
Even in the hottest period of the year temperature in the cave is rather low, thus creating favorable conditions for forming ice sheets.
On the territory of the village of Kldeisi there is a waterfall near which is located a cave full o water in summer and full of ice in winter.
Location: Tetri Tskaro municipality, territory of the village of Chkhikvta, right side of the gorge of river Algeti, 1196 m above sea level.
Access road: near the freeway of Tbilisi-Tetri Tskaro starts a 1 km rocky road crossing a forest and climbing an ascend. In good wather it is possible to ride a four-wheeler; distance from Tbilisi 60 km; from Tetri Tskaro 5 km.
Chkhikvta trinity, or `Plot of Heroes` is a cone-like hill on top of which stands St. Trinity Chapel.volcanic boulders here are not different from similar lavas providing ground to other plateaus of southern Georgia.
On the north-west slope of Chkhikvta trinity, in the gorge of river Algeti, in the proximity of the village of Tbisi, is situated Algeti water pool. Its length is 3,7 km, width 0,4 km.
Location: Tetri Tskaro municipality, river Algeti gorge; elevation of Birtvisi rocks 950-1050 m above sea level.
Access road: to the east of the village of Partskhisi, in6-7 km, runs a walking trail; path goes also from the village of Tbisi in Tetri Tskaro municipality, distance 5 km; distance from Tbilisi 55 km; from Tetri Tskaro – 20 km.
In the rocky cone-like mountains of Birtvisi, the least accessible Birtvisi fortress as it is known in the nation, is located.in the highest point of the citadel stands a tower `Invincible` from where one can have excellent look-out of the surrounding areas. We ascend to the legenadry Birtvisi fortress by staircase cut in the rocks of the fortress.
Resort of Manglisi
Location: south slopes of Trialeti range, gorge of river Odzisi
Distance: 30 km away from Tbilisi
Sea level: 1204m
Landscape: hillocky plateau
Climate: moderate mountain climate, winter moderately cold, snow cover stable from December until beginning of March, mean temperature in January – 2,2 degrees centigrade, summer moderately dry and warm, mean temperature in August 18,4 degrees centigrade
Average annual precipitation: 690 mm
Average comparative annual humidity: 72%
Duration of annual sunny light: 2200 h
Natural treatment factors: middle mountain lower belt climate
Types of therapy: passive climate therapy
Diseases for treatment: lung TB and non-TB chronic diseases, bronchial asthma
Many centuries ago on the South slope of Trialeti range, on the wide plateau surrounded by mountains, there was a settlement named Odzisi that was a center of Aldagi gorge and one of the hotbeds of dissemination of Christianity in Georgia. But in 1795 strong and rich gorge was totally devastated as a result of cruel invasions of Iranians.
On the venue of ancient Odzisi, today’s settlement of Manglisi seems to be founded in XIX century. Special climatic conditions and water springs which are numerous on the territory of the settlement, as far back as then attracted attention of specialists. In 1923 the settlement was officially recognized a resort and the first rest-house for children was inaugurated, followed in several years by the first children’s health center.
Today Manglisi is a resort settlement. Within the sanitary boundaries of the resort, on the mountain slopes around Manglisi plateau, pine-tree forest is stretched. Plateau is open to the South that ensures moderate ventilation of air. Moderately warm and dry climate of Manglisi is recommended for curing respiratory organs diseases and their prevention. Especially wholesome is the end of spring, time for florescence and pollination of pine-trees.
There are numerous fresh and mineral water springs mushroomed in the settlement itself and its environs, as well as in surrounding gorges and mountain slopes, but their qualities at this point have not been scientifically studied.
Resort of Kumisi
Location: between Yagluja highland and Tsalaskuri plain, to the North-Western direction from Kumisi Lake
Distance: 20 km away from Tbilisi
Sea level: 480 m
Landscape: hillocky plain
Climate: mild, continental, dry, winter soft with little snow, mean temperature in January 0 degrees centigrade, summer hot, dry, mean temperature in August 24 degrees centigrade
Average annual precipitation: 550 mm
Average comparative annual humidity: 68%
Duration of annual sunny light: 2200 h
Natural treatment factors: low mountain climate and Kumisi Lake sulfide therapeutic mud containing silicon, aluminium, aro oxides and other biologically active ingredients. Besides Kumisi Lake water – chloride-sulphate, magnesium-calcium-sodium mineral water with general mineralization of 15-25 g/dm3
Types of therapy: therapeutic mud bath and applications, passive climate therapy
Diseases for treatment: cardiovascular, gynecological and musculoskeletal system diseases, neprhritis, cystitis, chronic gastritis, colitis, chronic hepatitis, and also nervous system disorders: radiculitis, encephaltis
Gardabani municipality is located in the ssouth of the country, near the Azerbaijan border. Territory begins among the slopes of Kojori-Sakaraulo, Mtatsminda, Tabori and Teleti and on its way to south it gradually turns into a plain. The bulk of the municipality border is accompanied by Georgia’s and Transcaucasia’s longest river Mtkvari. On the bank of river Mtkvari, between Teleti slope and Yagluja highland, on the Kumisi hollow, is situated the hamlet of Kumisi – upper-belt peloid and health resort area noted for its medicinal mud. The therapeutic mud is extracted from artificial lake located in the Southeastern part of the village the floor of which is covered with pseudo-volkanic-origin mud having high quality medicinal properties. The thickness of the silt is several tend of sm. The mud is actively used at Tbilisi Spa Resort.
Up to the middle of the last century, on the place of today’s Kumisi Lake there was a small (0,48 sq.km) salty lake of Pseudo-karst origin with a big content of Glaubers salts. In the 1960-ies the basin of the lake was filled with waters of river Mtkvari. The water level went up and lake became desalinized. Today the basin area of Kumisi Lake is 97 sq. km, and surface area roughly 5 sq. km. the length is 3 km, width – 1 km. the depth of the Lake according to the changing level of water, hovers from 4 to 6 meters. The lakeside is covered with sedge grass and the reeds that are good refuge for water birds.
Kumisi Lake. There are lots of mullet, silver carp, common carp, cat-fish, minnows, barbell and other spesies of fish. Nearby there is fishing farm that is very popular among the lowers of fishing.
Resort area of Dmanisi
Location: south mountain land of Georgia, both river Mashavera (basin of river Khrami)
Distance: 130 km away from Rustavi, 120 km away from Tbilisi
Sea level: 1250 m
Climate: moderately humid, winter moderately cold, mean temperature in January – 2,7 degrees centigrade, snow cover from mid-December up to the end of March, summer moderately warm, mean temperature in July 18,2 degrees centigrade
Average annual precipitation: 698 mm
Average comparative annual humidity: 73%
Duration of annual sunny light: 1760 h
Natural treatment factors: middle mountain low belt climate and slightly sulfide, chloride-hidro-carbonate, sodium, mineral waters available in the Dmanisi environs with general mineralization of 0,4-0,8 g/dm3
Types of therapy: mineral water application (drinking), passive climate therapy
Diseases for treatment: cardiovascular system pathologies, bronchial asthma, chronic gastritis, cystistis, urinary and calculus disease, iron-deficit anemia
Trialeti, historical and geographic region of Georgia located between Javakheti and Kartli, earlier encompassed territories of Tsalka and Dmanisi munisipalities, and was famous with livestock breeding and field-crop cultivation. Region located on the crossroads of Eastern Georgia, in the course of time, as a result of continuous invasions of enemies, became nearly deserted. However, it preserved for us rich historical heritage: more than hundred churches and ruins of fortresses and settlements, caves and cavities, boulder structures and settlements, boulder monoliths.
As it looks, the first human being in the Transcaucasia also made his first abode here, in historical Trialeti, on the territory of Dmanisi. It happened nearly 1,800.000 years ago. After excavations in Dmanisi region in 1999 and 2001 skulls of the first Eurasian hominids and chin bones were unearthed. Scholars named them Homo Georgikus.
Georgia’s Preserved Territories were expanded in in 2013 when Dashbashi and Samshvilde canyons were added to their list. Canyons are shaped by river Khrami. Its riverbed was formed in the volcanic (basalt lava) rocks on which Tsalka plateau and Khrami massif are positioned. Underground water outlets and waterfalls, natural and human-made caves multiply on the slope. Canyon is the best object for educational and scientific tours since on the slopes of a canyon one can vividly see history of geologic development of the region. Dashbashi canyon is situated on the elevation of 1500 m above sea level.